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Time to leave town. I have to head over the pass to catch a plane. As they say in Brooklyn, you gotta do what you gotta do. In clear weather like this, we know, the drive will take about 90 minutes. The moon is still visible in the sky, and the road is silent.
Plenty of our neighbors go over Togwotee Pass to Jackson all the time, for a shopping spree, to catch a ski lift or a show, or to visit a specialist. We rarely bother to head into that tourist hot spot, except to catch a flight.
We used to approach road cuts like the one below with trepidation. Especially on a wintry day like this, the drive could be pretty nerve-wracking. Today, the highway is smooth, fast, and as you see from the pictures well cared-for even in the winter.
The succession of vistas make you catch your breath, beginning with the monumental granite walls of the pinnacles, climbing to and passing across vast high mountain valleys, then drifting downward through a green tunnel of pines that open to views of the Tetons. This pleasure came at a price.
Not long ago, we had to endure hour-long waits to cross miles of washboard gravel, while the huge orange toys moved big chunks of rock from here to there, scooped the gravel flat and frosted it with asphalt. Even back at home, we had nuisances to endure.
Trucks burdened with boulders or tons of gravel would groan uphill past me as I finished my morning bike ride, and then growl noisily downhill using their jake-brakes on the way back down. The reward for our patience is a smooth, wide ribbon. The heavy equipment that goes up and down the road most often this time of year, other than the logging trucks, are the snowplows. In warmer months, this road becomes a scenic detour for those travelers who miss the turn at Moran Junction.
Every so often a stranger pulls into our driveway and asks how far it is to Yellowstone. In fact, there is. But it reaches the northeast entrance to the park, and takes the better part of a day. But there are nice motels and good restaurants 10 minutes farther on, in town. The brand-new Destination Dubois website shows in living color all the good reasons to come this way.
Please do take a moment to go to www. Many of the stunning images have been contributed by Dubois residents. Local artist Gary Keimig took the lovely background picture of a sunrise above, and Sally Wulbrecht, curator of the Dubois Museum , took the pictures of the horses and hikers.
The new website lays out in one place the many compelling reasons to discover Dubois, such as those below:. Please, if you already know and love Dubois, tell your friends about the new website by any means of communication you employ.
I wrote the text for the site. Please let me know if you find something that ought to be changed. The wind is up again, driving the snow flurries sideways. It has pushed a steady bank of snow clouds across the Absarokas, and the Ramshorn peak up the valley has vanished again. The trucks struggle even harder up the hill. Birds flap valiantly to stay on course, and soon drop out of sight to rest somewhere.
The shingles on our roof rattle, and some of them fall. It creates remarkable drifts in the snow, so deep that our dog may almost lose himself briefly while trying to run across an open field. Of course we have winds here. They did call it the Wind River Valley for a reason. From this valley they say you are going. Like much doggerel, those words are somewhat in jest. These are not the unceasing winds of the dust bowl. How it lashed things!
How it shook and flailed and trampled this poor old earth of ours! In the Wind River Valley, much of the time there is almost no wind at all. Like the bears in summer, the wind in winter is a factor in where I choose to hike. Writing in in the Great Plains Quarterly, cultural geographer Cary DeWit described his field studies of modern women living on the high plains of Kansas and Colorado.
The wind bothered many of them a great deal, he reported, and much more than it seemed to trouble the men unless it hindered their ability to deal with crops or the stock.
It makes me grumpy and makes me angry. One of the first comments I ever received to an entry in Living Dubois also mentioned the wind, as one factor that drove its author a woman away from town.
As for me, in a way I enjoy the wind which I can hear even as I write. You have to treat it with respect, for sure. It worries me greatly when there are forest fires nearby. We often choose to avoid driving northbound between I and Lander, because out there on the sage flats the wind is often so strong and incessant that your hands eventually cramp holding the steering wheel.
But here in Dubois, especially in mild weather, I actually find the periods of wind a little exhilarating, as I might if I were on a sailboat in a sheltered bay somewhere. The wind will always bring something new from the horizon.
It drove these clouds in, and it will drive them away, sooner or later. Then it will surely blow away itself. Want to see more of Living Dubois? Sign up at upper right to receive new posts by email. Again and again, people come to this remote town not far from Yellowstone and fall in love. How does this happen? You hear about it again and again: Someone came to this remote town not far from Yellowstone and fell in love.
Stunned by the scenery: A too well-kept secret. Granite peaks that rival the Grand Tetons for their splendor. The fascinating, slowly melting red desert. The quiet forests and mountain streams. The vistas never fail to astonish. Seduced by the climate: The weather is most often pleasant and dry. The sun shines most of the time. Days are generally mild in winter, and cool in summer. Fascinated by the history … and the prehistory. From the mysterious carvers of the petroglyphs to the courageous and resilient Mountain Men and homesteaders, the people of the past never fail to amaze.
Charmed by the people of the present: Awed by the animals: The other beautiful residents of this valley appear unexpectedly, and leave you catching your breath in awe. Healed by the hikes or the horseback rides: Whatever the little misery that clouds your vision, it will vanish as soon as you can step outdoors, pause for a deep breath, and take the first few strides.
Silenced by the snow: Romanced by the remoteness: What does surround you? The beauty of nature, most of it accessible as public land. That said, there are plenty of good places to buy a meal or even an espresso. In love with the location: Smack-dab in the middle of the great American West.
Drawn to the artists: You may not be skilled at capturing what you see on canvas or film , but so many others are. Plenty of them have not resisted the lure of living here, and you have ample opportunities to admire their work on display at art or photography shows, or in local galleries.
Did you think there would be nothing to do out here in the middle of so much wilderness? I must be sure to be rested up before the Soupenanny next weekend! So many choices, so little time! Beguiled by the benevolence: There are at least 30 nonprofit organizations in a town that has not quite residents, as of the last census. Nearly every event is a benefit for one cause or another, and when we run into a true crisis — a catastrophic fire in the middle of the business district, the threatened cancellation of our ambulance service — the way Dubois pulls together to rise and recover is almost beyond descriptions.
Captivated by the creativity: Woodcarvers and antler sculptors. Jewelry designers and master caterers./p>
Washington for his call to lead blacks through industrial education without the inclusion of higher learning. How, Du Bois reasons, can African-Americans become "co-workers in the kingdom of culture" if they are only trained in the sterile practice of moneymaking?
In Chapters 4 and 5, Du Bois takes his readers further into the idea of the veil, taking a look both inside it and outside in each chapter, respectively.
By Chapter 6, we realize that the main problem in achieving coherent personhood for African-Americans is education. Chapters 7 and 8 outline the struggles that the masses of African-American workers, in particular, have undergone. Chapter 9 turns toward the present relations between African-Americans and white Americans. It focuses, in particular, on the manners and modes of segregation that keep the best of whites living apart from the best of African-Americans, thereby preventing a fruitful fusion of cultures.
In Chapter 10, Du Bois purports to lift the veil, so that whites can see inside and especially appreciate the religious sense and striving of African Americans.
He shows that the meaning of the religion is that it constitutes a special place where the kind of community and life for African-Americans can be attained that the white world denies them. Religion has had to become a refuge, but also at the same time a source of genuine freedom of expression and creativity.
Chapter 11, which is very moving, recounts the birth and loss of Du Bois' own son as an instance of his own struggle against white culture. Here Du Bois laments that his newborn, innocent son will soon have to cross into the color line of hateful American prejudice. Chapters 12 and 13 discuss the struggles that great African-American souls had to deal with to become more fully appreciated, including a narrative about a man named John who defended his sister against dishonor only to be met with horrible racism as a result.
Chapter 14, the last chapter, closes with a rich discussion of African-American music in which Du Bois points to this music as an emblem of the possible brighter future in which African-Americans become co-workers in American culture.
Such music is the symbol of this better future in which African-Americans contribute to the culture since it is, after all, he claims, the only genuinely beautiful music that has come out of America to date, and reveals what African-Americans can accomplish.
Thus, Du Bois provides us with multiple instances of double consciousness. In each case, African-Americans are shown to be struggling to achieve themselves, due to the enforced divisions and roadblocks of white culture. What Du Bois presents here are short, powerful looks at the struggle to be recognized as fully human, a struggle due to the horrible crime of racism. The concept of double consciousness plays itself out in a variety of waysfrom the agonizing worry a father feels in raising his son in a white world to the failed policies of segregation and the creation of ghettos in American citiesalways with the same devastating effect, the compromising of identity, and yet with a new identity that is forming and emerging.
The African-American is forced to struggle to be him- or herself in America, Du Bois shows, but they have done so heroically and with deep humanity throughout their plight. Some Du Bois interpreters Higgins have found parallels between Du Bois' conception of double consciousness and Nietzsche's conception of the free spirit, or the man who stands apart. The idea is that in both cases someone within the culture is at the same time able to stand outside of it. But as we have seen above, beyond this general notion, Du Bois clearly develops his concept of double consciousness in the context of African-Americans specifically.
Nor does he favor this sense of division in the way that Nietzsche sometimes seems to do but rather he actively seeks to overcome it. The overall implication of Souls is that such enforced separation of consciousness as occurs in the case of African-Americans is wrong; it violates something fundamental about the human condition, and it ruins our republic, by preventing us from forming the best use of our talents by drawing on the strengths of all races.
We must work together to attain a greater sense of personhood for the members of our culture. Du Bois' other major philosophical concept is that of "second sight. Du Bois holds that due to their double consciousness, African-Americans possess a privileged epistemological perspective. Both inside the white world and outside of it, African-Americans are able to understand the white world, while yet perceiving it from a different perspective, namely that of an outsider as well.
The white person in America, by contrast, contains but a single consciousness and perspective, for he or she is a member of a dominant culture, with its own racial and cultural norms asserted as absolute.
The white person looks out from themselves and sees only their own world reflected back upon thema kind of blindness or singular sight possesses them. Luckily, as Du Bois makes clear, the dual perspective of African-Americans can be used to grasp the essence of whiteness and to expose it, in the multiple senses of the word "expose. The destruction of "whiteness" in this way leaves whites open to the experience of African-Americans, as a privileged perspective, and hence it also leaves African-Americans with a breach in the culture through which they could enter with their legitimate, and legitimating, perspectives.
In a particularly important essay of Dark Water, called "The Souls of White Folk," Du Bois reveals some of the wisdom of his race's privileged perspective. As Du Bois sees it, whites see themselves a certain way, namely as superior, civilized, perfect, beneficent, and called upon to help other peoples with their higher wisdom. But, in truth, as African-Americans can perceive quite plainly, whites are actually imperialistic, ugly, greedy, and corrupt in their practices.
Whites are imprisoned in their own false self-conception. Their own seriousness with themselves contrasts sharply with the reality that African-Americans see. What they see, above all, is that white society consists not of higher wisdom but only of "mutilation and rape masquerading as culture" Darkwater , Du Bois makes his claims more pointed and specific by noting that the concept of "whiteness" is what we might today call a social construct.
It is a concept that developed in the late nineteenth century and in the twentieth century. Before that, various societies hardly made much of differences in skin color. What is significant about this fact is that it shows whiteness as a category to emerge simultaneously with the development of industrialism and its counterpart colonialism.
Western peoples wanted the material resources of the third world, and so they invented the myth of their own superiority based on skin color, and the supposed inferiority of dark peoples, in order to assist them in their desire to steal. Based on such maneuvers as these, the third world was conquered, dark peoples were murdered, raped, and exploited, and white culture became rich.
This wealth and power in turn gave whites a sense of superiority. But this sense of superiority is undone by the tragic-comic self-conception whites have of themselves as superior simply because they are white, when in fact they are bound to a false, invented self-conception based on color, one that only serves to assist in murder and exploitation.
The supposedly civilized concept of "whiteness" in truth sinks into barbarism and insatiable world conquest. And it is this, precisely, that whites cannot see about themselves, but must learn to see, if the problem of the twentieth century, the problem of the color line, is to be overcome and the races are to create together a greater and truer democracy. As he put it in his autobiography, "I now state my conclusion frankly and clearly: I believe in communism.
I mean by communism, a planned way of life in the production of wealth and work designed for building a state whose object is the highest welfare of its people and not merely the profit of a part" Autobiography , Du Bois came to believe that the economic condition of Africans and African-Americans was one of the primary modes of their oppression, and that a more equitable distribution of wealth, as advanced by Marx, was the remedy to the situation.
Du Bois was not simply a follower of Marx, however. He also added keen insights to the communist tradition himself. One of his contributions is his insistence that communism contains no explicit means of liberating Africans and African-Americans, but that it ought to focus its attentions here and work toward this end.
Without their liberation and motive force in the production of communism, it cannot be achieved. It is the rise of these people that is the rise of the world" Black Folk , A further contribution Du Bois makes is to show how Utopian politics such as communism is possible in the first place. Building on Engle's claim that freedom lies in the acknowledgment of necessity, as Maynard Solomon argues Solomon, "Introduction" , because in grasping necessity we accurately perceive what areas of life are open to free action , Du Bois insists on the power of dreams.
Admitting our bound nature bound to our bellies, bound to material conditions , even stressing it, he nonetheless emphasizes our range of powers within these constraints.
In a lecture called "The Nature of Intellectual Freedom" that he delivered to the Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace in , using language that anticipates Jean-Paul Sartre , Du Bois calls attention to "the upsurging emotions," the mind's ability to go beyond what is present Also like Sartre, Du Bois attempts to employ this power behalf of socialism.
As Du Bois sees it, the human mind has the ability to take flight into "infinite freedoms" "The Nature," This "upsurging" ability of mind is vital to bringing about socialism, for it allows us to dream of what life and social conditions might be as compared to what they currently are Solomon, "Introduction," If properly cultivated, it allows us to see beyond the supposed necessity of the capitalist system, which everywhere presents itself, falsely, as the only way.
There is, as Du Bois points out "The Nature," , and Solomon confirms Solomon, "Introduction," , a "borderland" region in which compulsion and freedom meet. We must gain food, seek shelter, and raise our children. Necessity and liberty meet each other half way in this region, each pulling in their own direction, yet oftentimes working together.
Our leaders take advantage of this region. They enforce necessity to work hard and to work in order to eatin order, ultimately, to stifle individual freedom and its meanderings, its free decisions; and they promote ignorance of conditions in order to make us more beholden to them. However, there is hope in the fact that freedom also operates in this border region and that our minds can shape a part of what occurs in this region.
Socialism must focus here and nurture this hope. It must promote, above all, "the dreaming of dreams by untwisted souls," that our dreams might someday lead to better realities "The Nature," The work took up so much of his time that he missed the birth of his first son in Great Barrington.
The study is considered one of the earliest examples of statistical work being used for sociological purposes, with extensive fieldwork resulting in hundreds of interviews conducted door-to-door by Du Bois. Bureau of Labor Statistics offered Du Bois a job in , leading to several groundbreaking studies on black Southern households in Farmville, Virginia , that uncovered how slavery still affected the personal lives of African Americans.
Du Bois would do four more studies for the bureau, two in Alabama and two in Georgia. These studies were considered radical at the time when sociology existed in pure theoretical forms. Du Bois was pivotal in making investigation and data analysis crucial to sociological study. Du Bois and family moved to Atlanta University, where he taught sociology and worked on his additional Bureau of Labor Statistics studies.
Among the books written during this period was The Souls of Black Folk , a collection of sociological essays examining the black experience in America. It also expressly differentiated Du Bois from more conservative black voices like Booker T. In Du Bois taught summer school at Booker T. That group failed, partly due to opposition from Washington , but during its existence Du Bois published The Moon Illustrated Weekly , the first weekly magazine for African Americans, producing a total of 34 issues and folding in He followed this up briefly with the journal Horizon.
Du Bois also became more interested in communism and international issues, and became an open supporter of progressive and left-wing groups, which created problems with NAACP leadership. He left the organization again in Following the death of his wife in , Du Bois married Shirley Graham the following year. In Du Bois officially joined the American Communist Party before leaving the country to live in Ghana at the invitation of its president and becoming a citizen there.
Du Bois first conceived of the Encyclopedia Africana in , a compendium of history and achievement of people of African descent designed to bring a sense of unity to the African diaspora. After Du Bois was invited to move to Ghana, he pledged to finally publish the work, but it was never realized before his death. Du Bois died in Ghana in and was given a state funeral. Du Bois Research Institute. There are two more important ways in which the Dusk of Dawn account diverges from that of Souls.
Du Bois presents this stark reality as undeniable, while at the same time as contrasted to the claims made by racist prejudice concerning black folk, claims he takes the trouble to explicitly reject:.
It is true, as I have argued, that Negroes are not inherently ugly nor congenitally stupid. They are not naturally criminal and their poverty and ignorance today have clear and well-known and remediable causes. All this is true: The white folk of the world are richer and more intelligent; they live better; have better government; have better legal systems; have built more impressive cities; larger systems of communication and they control a larger part of the earth than all the colored peoples together.
These facts, it is worth emphasizing, are listed by Du Bois not as representations of white prejudice but as an essential acknowledgment of patent observable realities. Though their causes, both present and past, count against the prejudiced conclusions often drawn, the causes are less visible, so less obvious. But the facts on the ground cannot be denied. Another important departure of the text from Souls is an explicit recognition in the latter text that the psychic phenomena attributed to Negro Americans are not distinctive; as Du Bois writes,.
None have more pitilessly castigated the Jews than the Jewish prophets, ancient and modern. He goes on to cite as further cases the Irish and the Germans of the Sturm und Drang period. Such an account must, of course, confront the glaringly peculiar fact of the singular use of the term by Du Bois despite his revisiting in his writing, on various occasions in different contexts of publication, what seems to be an increasingly expansive repertoire of closely related phenomena.
Part of what he wants to distance himself from is the idea—explicitly rejected in Dusk of Dawn —that collectivities can be treated as entities with their own consciousnesses, reified in what he seems to have regarded as mistaken idealist theoretical overreach.
Finally, Du Bois seems to have opened up and expanded the range of phenomena related to double consciousness beyond the exemplar in the texts. Rather, he employs, alternately, two strategies of writing in trying to capture its fullness. I began to feel that dichotomy which all my life has characterized my thought: And when these loyalties diverge, where shall my soul find refuge? It is plainly autobiographical rather than programmatic, as are the Souls texts.
This formulation in no way suggests anything like a basic psychic split, but rather reflects an ambivalence, a conflict of affections and loyalties—but within an integral self. All previous critical attention has been fixed steadily on the spiritual aspect of the phenomena of double consciousness, virtually none on the environing conditions Du Bois saw as giving rise to it. The environing conditions might be summed up as. The spiritual correlate of these environing conditions would include some combination of at least some of these sorts of emergent aspects:.
Africana Philosophy consciousness Du Bois, W. Fanon, Frantz race race: Thanks to Tommie Shelby, who commissioned this article, discussed it with me, and steadily, patiently encouraged its production. Thanks also to Martha Bragin. The essay has benefitted from discussion in all those venues.
Double Consciousness First published Mon Mar 21, The Trajectory of the Concept 2. Double-Consciousness in Souls of Black Folk: Du Boisian Double-Consciousness after Souls? Conclusion Bibliography Primary Literature: The Trajectory of the Concept In an magazine article and again in his Souls of Black Folk , Du Bois innovated by using a term already in currency—and with multiple associations in a variety of literary, philosophical, and scientific discourses—in a distinctive and original way to name a theretofore largely unremarked phenomenon.
In a recent interview, Toni Morrison recalls the Du Boisian motif in characterizing the literary work of Black men: Morrison contrasts this to her own approach, which is to take away the gaze of the white male. He concludes that [a]s a proposition alleging a generic racial condition—that millions of individuals experience a peculiar form of bifurcated identity, simply by virtue of common racial status—the notion seems preposterous on its face.
In a reading of Souls that is central to his book, Gilroy highlights the nagging anxiety over the inner contradictions of modernity and a radical scepticism towards the ideology of progress with which it is associated Several pages later, Fanon observes that The effective disalienation of the black man entails an immediate recognition of social and economic realities.
Molefi Kete Asante, discussing his own experience growing up in and around the small town of Valdosta, Georgia, in the s, writes that [t]he tightly knit community of Africans who lived on the dirt roads of Valdosta never saw themselves as intellectually or physically inferior to whites. He does go on to acknowledge the special circumstances of his experience: After specifying that his knowledge is not that of the foreigner, nor of the servant or the worker, he writes: There is another passage later in Darkwater that bears, if somewhat indirectly, on the notion of double-consciousness: Writing of his own personal experience, Du Bois details the effect of this environing white world on him: There is also, indeed, according to the Dusk of Dawn account, a further, more telling and insidious effect of the white world on the Negro soul, here exemplified by Du Bois: Because of this, it is almost impossible for a Negro boy trained in a white Northern high school and a white college to come out with any high idea of his own people or any abiding faith in what they can do.
And there is what Du Bois calls that bitter inner criticism of Negroes directed in upon themselves, which is widespread. Du Bois presents this stark reality as undeniable, while at the same time as contrasted to the claims made by racist prejudice concerning black folk, claims he takes the trouble to explicitly reject: Another important departure of the text from Souls is an explicit recognition in the latter text that the psychic phenomena attributed to Negro Americans are not distinctive; as Du Bois writes, [s]imilar phenomena may be noticed always among undeveloped or suppressed peoples or groups undergoing extraordinary experience.
The spiritual correlate of these environing conditions would include some combination of at least some of these sorts of emergent aspects: Blight and Robert Gooding-Williams, Boston: Voices from Within the Veil , New York: James Munroe and Company, pp.
Gates, Henry Louis Jr. Oxford University Press, , pp. Gilroy, Paul, , The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness , Harvard: James Journal , 11 1: Henry Holt and Company. Du Bois , Vol. Henry Holt and Company, esp. Mitchill to the Reverend Dr. Fabianism and the Color Line , Oxford: West, Cornel, , Prophecy Deliverance! University Press of Mississippi, pp. Academic Tools How to cite this entry. Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPapers , with links to its database.
Other Internet Resources W. Acknowledgments Thanks to Tommie Shelby, who commissioned this article, discussed it with me, and steadily, patiently encouraged its production.
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Jun 29, · To mark the 10th anniversary of The Beatles Love show by Cirque du Soleil at the Mirage Hotel in Las Vegas, a brand video has been created to represent the re-staging of George Harrison’s While. Watch video · Who Was W.E.B. Du Bois? Scholar and activist W.E.B. Du Bois was born on February 23, , in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. In , he became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Du Bois wrote extensively and was the best known spokesperson for African-American rights during the first half of the 20th century. While some insects may have some of these characters, only insects with all of these characteristics are likely to be kissing bugs. Add to this that kissing bugs come out mostly at night, and it shouldn’t be too difficult to distinguish kissing bugs from all other insects.